The word fractal has become increasingly popular, although the concept started more than two centuries ago in the 17th century with prominent and prolific mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz. Leibnitz is believed to have addressed for the first time the notion of recursive self-similarity, and it wasn’t until 1960 that the concept was formally stabilized both theoretically and practically, through the mathematical development and computerized visualizations by Benoit Mandelbrot, who settled on the name “fractal”.
Fractals are defined mainly by three characteristics:
- Self-similarity: identical or very similar shapes and forms at all scales.
- Iteration: a recursive relationship limited only by computer capacity. With sufficiently high performance, the iterations could be infinite. This allows for very detailed shapes at every scale, that modify with respect to the first iteration, manifesting the original shape at some levels of iteration. Because of this, fractals may have emergent properties, which make them a suitable tool for complex systems.
- Fractal dimension, or fractional dimensions: describes the counter-intuitive notion that a measured length changes with the length of the measuring stick used; it quantifies how the number of scaled measuring sticks required to measure, for example, a coastline, changes with the scale applied to the stick.
Redação do Site Inovação Tecnológica – 27/11/2020O observatório Planck rastreou a radiação cósmica de fundo, que os cientistas acreditam ser o “eco” do Big Bang. [Imagem: ESA/Planck]
O retorno do éter
Uma dupla de físicos da Alemanha e do Japão acredita ter dado um passo importante para ressuscitar uma das teorias mais controversas da Física: o éter.
Até Einstein, o éter era a substância essencial a partir da qual todas as partículas e ondas eram medidas, e no qual elas se deslocavam. Mas a teoria da relatividade especial dispensou o éter. Como defender o éter significava contrapor-se à relatividade, o termo foi logo banido e criou-se muito preconceito em torno dele.
Não têm faltado tentativas de ressuscitá-lo, sendo que a versão mais moderna equivale ao chamado vácuo quântico, que descreve o “vazio” como uma sopa de partículas que surgem e desaparecem o tempo todo – para quase todos os efeitos, aceitar o vácuo quântico significa apenas rebatizar o éter.Leer Más
A new theory explains the seemingly irreversible arrow of time while yielding insights into entropy, quantum computers, black holes, and the past-future divide.
Coffee cools, buildings crumble, eggs break and stars fizzle out in a universe that seems destined to degrade into a state of uniform drabness known as thermal equilibrium. The astronomer-philosopher Sir Arthur Eddington in 1927 cited the gradual dispersal of energy as evidence of an irreversible “arrow of time.”
But to the bafflement of generations of physicists, the arrow of time does not seem to follow from the underlying laws of physics, which work the same going forward in time as in reverse. By those laws, it seemed that if someone knew the paths of all the particles in the universe and flipped them around, energy would accumulate rather than disperse: Tepid coffee would spontaneously heat up, buildings would rise from their rubble and sunlight would slink back into the sun.
By examining our minds at a quantum level, we change them, and by changing them, we change the reality that shapes them.
Japón donó suplementos médicos a China y puso en las cajas un poema budista:
“Tenemos diferentes montañas y ríos, pero compartimos el mismo sol, la misma luna y el mismo cielo”.
Después, China envió mascarillas médicas a Italia y colocó en las cajas un poema de Séneca, antiguo filósofo romano:
“Somos olas del mismo mar, hojas del mismo árbol, flores del mismo jardín”.
The physical universe that we live in is only our perception and once our physical bodies die, there is an infinite beyond. Some believe that consciousness travels to parallel universes after death. “The beyond is an infinite reality that is much bigger… which this world is rooted in. In this way, our lives in this plane of existence are encompassed, surrounded, by the afterworld already… The body dies but the spiritual quantum field continues. In this way, I am immortal,” suggest researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich