Físicos dizem ter detectado o quinto elemento – a quintessência

Redação do Site Inovação Tecnológica – 27/11/2020Quintessência: Físicos dizem ter detectado o quinto elementoO observatório Planck rastreou a radiação cósmica de fundo, que os cientistas acreditam ser o “eco” do Big Bang. [Imagem: ESA/Planck]

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O retorno do éter

Uma dupla de físicos da Alemanha e do Japão acredita ter dado um passo importante para ressuscitar uma das teorias mais controversas da Física: o éter.

Até Einstein, o éter era a substância essencial a partir da qual todas as partículas e ondas eram medidas, e no qual elas se deslocavam. Mas a teoria da relatividade especial dispensou o éter. Como defender o éter significava contrapor-se à relatividade, o termo foi logo banido e criou-se muito preconceito em torno dele.

Não têm faltado tentativas de ressuscitá-lo, sendo que a versão mais moderna equivale ao chamado vácuo quântico, que descreve o “vazio” como uma sopa de partículas que surgem e desaparecem o tempo todo – para quase todos os efeitos, aceitar o vácuo quântico significa apenas rebatizar o éter.

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Can Quantum Physics Explain Consciousness? One Scientist Thinks It Might

Fellow scientists labeled him a crackpot. Now Stuart Hameroff’s quantum consciousness theories are getting support from unlikely places.

By Steve VolkMarch 1, 2018 12:00 PM

Stuart-Hameroff

Anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff believes tiny structures in our cells called microtubules could explain consciousness. (Credit: Steve Craft)

Stuart Hameroff is an impish figure — short, round, with gray hair and a broad, gnomic face. His voice is smoke — deep and granular, rumbling with the weight of his 70 years. For more than two decades, he’s run a scientific conference on consciousness research. He turns up each day in rumpled jeans and short-sleeved shirts. The effect is casual bordering on slovenly. But up close, he is in charge, and to his critics, he comes off as pugnacious.

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Quantum Physics May Upend Our Macroscopic Reality In The Universe

If a tree falls in the forest and someone is there to hear it, does it make a sound? Perhaps not.

Once again, quantum physics is calling our concept of reality into question.

If you are familiar with quantum physics, you know that on very tiny scales, the Universe is very weird. Particles act like particles and waves at the same time. An electron may be in one location, and then suddenly in another location, without ever passing through a point between those two spots. Or even a single particle can interact with itself.

But on the macroscopic scale, things are more “normal”. At least, we think. But perhaps quantum physics also affects us, as macroscopic observers. And recent research published in Nature Physics says for even macroscopic observers, quantum physics may call our reality into question.

Tenets Of Reality That Are True… Or Are They?

As macroscopic observers, we can say three things about reality.

  1. If you see an event happening, it really happened.
  2. You can make free choices. Particles can make “free choices” too, which are statistically probabilistic.
  3. If something happens, it can’t instantaneously affect something far away. Information can only travel so fast, normally governed by the universal speed limit – the speed of light.

Let’s compare these with reality on a quantum level.

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How do birds navigate? Quantum entanglement suggests

  • Birds’ navigation using Earth’s very faint magnetic fields suggests an incredible level of sensitivity.
  • There’s reason to think that sensitivity may be based on quantum entanglement in cryptochrome in their eyes.
  • Identifying the role of quantum physics in biology could lead, well, who knows where?

Okay, this is far from confirmed, but it’s pretty radical, and exciting. It’s a possible and plausible answer to a question that’s puzzled biologists ever since the manner in which birds navigate became apparent. The question is: How can birds possibly be able to perceive and follow something as faint as the Earth’s magnetic field? The possible answer? It may be that they perceive it through the interaction of entangled quantum particles in their eyes.

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Time’s Arrow Traced to Quantum Source

A new theory explains the seemingly irreversible arrow of time while yielding insights into entropy, quantum computers, black holes, and the past-future divide.

Coffee cools, buildings crumble, eggs break and stars fizzle out in a universe that seems destined to degrade into a state of uniform drabness known as thermal equilibrium. The astronomer-philosopher Sir Arthur Eddington in 1927 cited the gradual dispersal of energy as evidence of an irreversible “arrow of time.”

But to the bafflement of generations of physicists, the arrow of time does not seem to follow from the underlying laws of physics, which work the same going forward in time as in reverse. By those laws, it seemed that if someone knew the paths of all the particles in the universe and flipped them around, energy would accumulate rather than disperse: Tepid coffee would spontaneously heat up, buildings would rise from their rubble and sunlight would slink back into the sun.

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Cientistas encontram universo multidimensional no cérebro

É um grande esforço de imaginação tentar compreender o mundo em quatro dimensões para muitas pessoas, mas um novo estudo descobriu estruturas no cérebro com até onze dimensões – trabalho inovador que está começando a revelar segredos profundos da arquitetura do cérebro.

Usando topologia algébrica de uma forma que nunca foi usada antes na neurociência, a equipe do Blue Brain Project descobriu um universo de estruturas geométricas multidimensionais e espaços dentro das redes do cérebro.

A pesquisa, publicada na Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, mostra que essas estruturas emergem quando um grupo de neurônios formam uma panelinha: cada neurônio se conecta à todos os outros neurônios do grupo de uma forma muito específica, que gera um objeto geométrico preciso. Quanto mais neurônios há em uma panelinha, maior é a dimensão do objeto geométrico.

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Physicists puzzled by strange numbers that could explain reality

 

Eight-dimensional octonions may hold the clues to solve fundamental mysteries.

  • Physicists discover complex numbers called octonions that work in 8 dimensions.
  • The numbers have been found linked to fundamental forces of reality.
  • Understanding octonions can lead to a new model of physics.

Is our reality, including its forces and particles, based on the strange properties of numbers with eight dimensions called “octonions“? A physicist thinks so, having found a way to expand 40-year-old research to reach surprising new directions.

First, a brief history of numbers.

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Filmada por primera vez la observación cuántica

La naturaleza duda antes de que el gato de Schrödinger aparezca vivo a muerto.

Los científicos han filmado lo que pasa cuando un observador se asoma al mundo cuántico: las dos probabilidades superpuestas dudan en el momento de elegir entre la vida y la muerte del gato, antes de que Schrödinger abra la caja.

Ion de estroncio atrapado en un campo eléctrico. La medición en el ion dura solo una millonésima de segundo… ¡y ha sido filmada! Crédito: F. Pokorny et al.
Un equipo de investigadores de Suecia, Alemania y España (Universidad de Sevilla) ha conseguido por primera vez filmar lo que pasa cuando un observador se asoma al mundo cuántico.

Es como decir, metafóricamente, que una cámara ha grabado el momento en el que Schrödinger destapa la caja y encuentra al gato vivo o muerto.

Según un ejemplo imaginado por el físico Erwin Schrödinger en 1935, si tenemos un gato dentro de una caja en la que hay alimento y veneno, el dueño del gato es el que decide su suerte al abrir la caja: estará vivo o muerto según lo que el observador quiera encontrar.

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The universe may be conscious, say prominent scientists

 

A proto-consciousness field theory could replace the theory of dark matter, one physicist states. 

What consciousness is and where it emanates from has stymied great minds in societies across the globe since the dawn of speculation. In today’s world, it’s a realm tackled more and more by physicists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists. There are a few prevailing theories. The first is materialism. This is the notion that consciousness emanates from matter, in our case, by the firing of neurons inside the brain.

Take the brain out of the equation and consciousness doesn’t exist at all. Traditionally, scientists have been stalwart materialists. But doing so has caused them to slam up against the limitations of materialism. Consider the chasm between relativity and quantum mechanics, or Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, and you quickly start to recognize these incongruities.

The second theory is mind-body dualism. This is perhaps more often recognized in religion or spirituality. Here, consciousness is separate from matter. It is a part of another aspect of the individual, which in religious terms we might call the soul. Then there’s a third option which is gaining ground in some scientific circles, panpsychism. In this view, the entire universe is inhabited by consciousness.

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Physicists puzzled by strange numbers that could explain reality

Eight-dimensional octonions may hold the clues to solve fundamental mysteries.

 

  • Physicists discover complex numbers called octonions that work in 8 dimensions.
  • The numbers have been found linked to fundamental forces of reality.
  • Understanding octonions can lead to a new model of physics.

Is our reality, including its forces and particles, based on the strange properties of numbers with eight dimensions called “octonions“? A physicist thinks so, having found a way to expand 40-year-old research to reach surprising new directions.

First, a brief history of numbers.

Leer Más