Discovery of New Immune Cell Type May Unlock Strategies against Neurological Disorders and CNS Damage

Investigators at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and the University of Michigan, have identified in mice a new type of immune cell, which their in vivo studies showed can rescue damaged nerve cells from death and partially reverse nerve fiber damage. The scientists also identified a human immune cell line that exhibits similar characteristics, and which promotes nervous system repair.

They suggest that the findings may point to new strategies for enabling recovery from degenerative neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as from damage caused by traumatic brain and spine injuries and stroke. “This immune cell subset secretes growth factors that enhance the survival of nerve cells following traumatic injury to the central nervous system,” said Benjamin Segal, MD, professor and chair of the department of neurology at the Ohio State College of Medicine and co-director of the Ohio State Wexner Medical Center’s Neurological Institute. “It stimulates severed nerve fibers to regrow in the central nervous system, which is really unprecedented. In the future, this line of research might ultimately lead to the development of novel cell-based therapies that restore lost neurological functions across a range of conditions.”

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Nerve finding unravels mystery about communication between the gut and brain

Scientists at Flinders University have, for the first time, identified a specific type of sensory nerve ending in the gut and how these may ‘talk’ to the spinal cord, communicating pain or discomfort to the brain.

This discovery is set to inform the development of new medications to treat problems associated with gut-to-brain communication, paving the way for targeted treatments to mitigate related dysfunction.

While our understanding of the gut’s neurosensory abilities has grown rapidly in recent years, two of the great mysteries have been where and how the different types of sensory nerve endings in the gut lie, and how they are activated.

An important step in answering these questions has been made possible through the development of new techniques by Professor Nick Spencer’s Visceral Neurophysiology laboratory at Flinders University in South Australia.

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Maconha vicia e gera prejuízos permanentes no cérebro, diz novo estudo

Já faz um certo tempo que é considerada a ideia de que as pessoas que ocasionalmente fumam maconha podem, em breve, se tornarem viciadas.

Agora, os cientistas afirmam ter chegado ao real motivo dessa questão. Segundo eles, a Cannabis sativa, a longo prazo, perturba determinados circuitos cerebrais, desencadeando desejos e dependências.

Essa constatação foi feita a partir de um estudo que mostrou que parte do cérebro associada a recompensa, acendeu-se quando pessoas olhavam para imagens da droga ou itens associados.

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Un video muestra cómo se lava nuestro cerebro mientras dormimos

Ondas de líquido cefalorraquídeo acuoso (LCR) fluyen sobre el cerebro, según muestra un nuevo estudio, pulsando rítmicamente mientras uno duerme. Asimismo, al mismo tiempo se lava al eliminar cualquier toxina que no debería acumularse. Este estudio se publicó en Science.

Los neurocientíficos han creado un video fascinante que muestra este proceso de pulsación nocturna en acción.

El equipo detrás de esta investigación explica que los hallazgos podrían ayudar en el estudio de varios trastornos neurológicos y psicológicos, especialmente en aquellos que están asociados con patrones de sueño interrumpidos.

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New Study: Sleep Is Literally a Deep Clean for Your Brain

Sleep washes away toxic gunk that builds up in your brain. Do you really want to leave it there?

It doesn’t take a PhD to figure out that sleep is essential. Anyone who’s struggled to get through the next day after a late night out can tell you that.

But researchers are constantly adding interesting new additions to the long list of reasons we sleep, from cementing new learning, to scrubbing the emotional charge from painful memories, to preventing you from having crabby fights with your partner (yes, this has been scientifically proven).

And now a team out of Boston University has added yet another reason to the list, and it’s particularly bad news for those who don’t manage to get enough shut eye: Sleep physically washes toxins, including those that can lead to Alzheimer’s, from your brain.

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Estudo aponta que cérebro continua a ganhar novos neurônios ao longo da vida

 

O ser humano continua a produzir novas células cerebrais ao longo da vida, pelo menos até os 97 anos, de acordo com um novo estudo.

Esta ideia tem sido amplamente debatida, e costumava-se pensar que nascemos com todas as células cerebrais que teremos em toda a vida.

Os pesquisadores da Universidade de Madri, na Espanha, também demonstraram que o número de novas células cerebrais produzidas diminui com a idade e que isso cai drasticamente nos estágios iniciais da doença de Alzheimer – o que permite pensar em novas formas de tratamento para demência.

Estudos com outros mamíferos já haviam demonstrado que novas células cerebrais são formadas em estágios posteriores da vida, mas a extensão desta «neurogênese» no cérebro humano ainda é algo polêmico.

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