Como a neurociência explica a empatia? Saiba como ela é ativada no cérebro…

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crédito: iStockEmpatia é definida como a capacidade de se colocar no lugar do outro, de perceber o estado ou a condição de outra pessoa e assim desenvolver a habilidade de sentir a mesma emoção. A neurociência tem evidenciado que a empatia é na verdade uma combinação de atos conscientes e inconscientes do cérebro que depende do bom funcionamento de certas regiões para florescer.

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Michael Dodge What you’re seeing right now is the past, so your brain is predicting the present

We feel that we live in the present. When we open our eyes, we perceive the outside world as it is right now. But we are actually living slightly in the past.

It takes time for information from our eyes to reach our brain, where it is processed, analysed and ultimately integrated into consciousness. Due to this delay, the information available to our conscious experience is always outdated.

So why don’t we notice these delays, and how does the brain allow us to feel like we are experiencing the world in real time?

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Enquanto o exercício de baixa intensidade aciona as redes cerebrais associadas ao controle cognitivo e ao processamento da atenção, o exercício de alta intensidade ativa primariamente as redes envolvidas no processamento emocional. É a conclusão de um estudo recente publicado no periódico Brain Plasticity.

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Meditation’s Effects on Alpha Brain Waves

A new study out of Brown University has found that a form of mindfulness meditation known as MBSR may act as a “volume knob” for attention, changing brain wave patterns.

What is MBSR?
Originally developed by a professor at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) is based on mindfulness meditation techniques that have been practiced in some form or another for over two millennia. The 8-week MBSR program still follows some of the same principles of the original Buddhist practice, training followers to focus a “spotlight of attention” on different parts of their body. Eventually, it is hoped, practitioners learn to develop the same awareness of their mental states.

In the last 20 years, MBSR and a similar practice called mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been included in an increasing number of healthcare plans in the developed world. Some studies have shown that these practices can reduce distress in individuals with chronic pain and decrease risk of relapses into depression.

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Elétrons e quarks podem ter consciência, diz professor

Para ele, a consciência é a capacidade de experimentar o mundo de alguma forma, e até mesmo as mais simples formas de matéria podem ‘sentir’

A única razão aparente pela qual os seres humanos sabem sobre a existência da consciência (o fenômeno de ter sentimentos e experiências subjetivas) é porque, de fato, temos experiências e sentimentos. Mas, apesar de séculos de estudo, os cientistas ainda não fizeram avanços no entendimento desse fenômeno.

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Os nossos cérebros não analisam passivamente as informações sensoriais. Em vez disso, eles selecionam as informações mais importantes às custas daquelas momentaneamente irrelevantes. Esse processo ativo, denominado atenção seletiva, constitui um elo crítico entre o processamento sensorial e o conjunto cognitivo interno. Um dos dogmas fundamentais que sustentam as neurociências cognitivas é que a atenção é controlada por áreas corticais parietais e pré-frontais. O estudo da referência mostra que uma outra região no lobo temporal inferior exibe as propriedades de um mapa que codifica o foco da atenção. Através da ressonância magnética funcional de todo o cérebro, estimulação e registros eletrofisiológicos específicos, a nova pesquisa modifica nossa compreensão da organização das vias visuais e das funções das redes atencionais. 🧠📑


Why is 18 the age of adulthood if the brain can take 30 years to mature?

Neuroscience research suggests it might be time to rethink our ideas about when exactly a child becomes an adult.

Research suggests that most human brains take about 25 years to develop, though these rates can vary among men and women, and among individuals.

  • Although the human brain matures in size during adolescence, important developments within the prefrontal cortex and other regions still take place well into one’s 20s.
  • The findings raise complex ethical questions about the way our criminal justice systems punishes criminals in their late teens and early 20s.

 

At what age does someone become an adult? Many might say that the 18th birthday marks the transition from childhood to adulthood. After all, that’s the age at which people can typically join the military and become fully independent in the eyes of the law.

But in light of research showing our brains develop gradually over the course of several decades, and at different paces among individuals, should we start rethinking how we categorize children and adults?

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