Does Information Carry Mass?

If information carries mass, could it be the dark matter physicists are craving?

The existence of dark energy and dark matter was inferred in order to correctly predict the expansion of the universe and the rotational velocity of galaxies. In this view, dark energy could be the source of the centrifugal force expanding the universe (it is what accounts for the Hubble constant in the leading theories), while dark matter could be the centripetal force (an additional gravity source) necessary to stabilize galaxies and clusters of galaxies, since there isn’t enough ordinary mass to keep them together. Among other hypotheses, dark energy and dark matter are believed to be related to the vacuum fluctuations, and huge efforts have been devoted to detecting it. The fact that no evidence has yet been found calls for a change of perspective that could be due to information theory.

How could we measure the mass of information?
Dr. Melvin Vopson, of the University of Portsmouth, has a hypothesis he calls the mass-energy-information equivalence. It extends the already existing information-energy equivalence by proposing information has mass. Initial works on Shannon’s classical information theory, its applications to quantum mechanics by Dr. Wheeler, and Landauer’s principle predicting that erasing one bit of information would release a tiny amount of heat, connect information to energy. Therefore, through Einstein’s equivalence between mass and energy, information – once created – has mass. The figure below depicts the extended equivalence principle.

In order to find the mass of digital information, one would start with an empty data storage device, measuring its total mass with a highly sensitive device. Once the information is recorded in the device, its mass is measured again. The next step is to erase one file and measure again. The limiting step is the fact that such an ultra-sensitive device doesn’t exist yet. In his paper published in the journal AIP Advances, Vopson proposes that this device could be in the form of an interferometer similar to LIGO, or a weighing machine like a Kibble balance. In the same paper, Vopson describes the mathematical basis for the mechanism and physics by which information acquires mass, and formulates this powerful principle, proposing a possible experiment to test it.

In regard to dark matter, Vopson says that his estimate of the ‘information bit content’ of the universe is very close to the number of bits of information that the visible universe would contain to make up all the missing dark matter, as estimated by M.P. Gough and published in 2008,.

This idea is synchronistic with the recent discovery that sound carries mass (https://resonancefdn.oldrsf.com/sound-has-mass-and-thus-gravity/), i.e., phonons are massive.

Vopson is applying for a grant in order to design and build the measurement device and perform the experiments. We are so looking forward to his results!

RSF in perspective

Both dark matter and dark energy have been inferred as a consequence of neglecting spin in the structure of space-time. In the frame of the Generalized Holographic approach, spin is the natural source of centrifugal and centripetal force that emerges from the gradient density across scales, just as a hurricane emerges due to pressure and temperature gradients. The vacuum energy of empty space – the classical or cosmological vacuum – has been estimated to be 10−9 joules per cubic meter. However, vacuum energy density at quantum scale is 10113joules per cubic meter. Such a discrepancy of 122 orders of magnitude difference in vacuum densities between micro and cosmological scales is known as the vacuum catastrophe. This extremely large density gradient in the Planck field originates spin at all scales.

Additionally, the holographic model explains mass as an emergent property of an information transfer potential between the information-energy stored in a confined volume and the information-energy in the surface or boundary of that volume, with respect to the size or volume of a bit of information. Each bit of information-energy voxelating the surface and volume is spinning at an extremely fast speed. Space is composed of these voxels, named Planck Spherical Units (PSU), which are a quanta of action. The expressed or unfolded portion of the whole information is what we call mass. For more details on how the holographic approach explains dark mass and dark energy, please see our RSF article on the Vacuum Catastrophe (https://resonance.is/the-vacuum-catastrophe/).

Link original:https://www.resonancescience.org/blog/does-information-carry-mass?fbclid=IwAR2gkGFxUvbzGW4bq5nP-M9b6lBVwPX6xBoE9xf3aSS5qm6lG60C7B6Rqhc


PARTICULAS FANTASMAS

Los científicos a menudo se refieren al neutrino como la «partícula fantasma. «Los neutrinos fueron una de las partículas más abundantes en el origen del universo y lo siguen siendo hoy en día. Las reacciones de fusión en el sol producen vastos ejércitos de ellos, que vierten sobre la Tierra todos los días. Trillones pasan a través de nuestros cuerpos cada segundo, luego vuelan a través de la Tierra como si no estuviera allí.Aunque fue postulado por primera vez hace casi un siglo y detectado por primera vez hace 65 años, los neutrinos permanecen envueltos en el misterio debido a su reticencia a interactuar con la materia», dijo Alessandro Lovato, un físico nuclear del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos (DO E) Laboratorio Nacional Argonne.Lovato es miembro de un equipo de investigación de cuatro laboratorios nacionales que ha construido un modelo para abordar uno de los muchos misterios acerca de los neutrinos – cómo interactúan con los núcleos atómicos, sistemas complicados hechos de protones y neutrones («núcleo ns») unidos por la fuerza fuerte. Este conocimiento es esencial para desentrañar un misterio aún más grande — por qué durante su viaje a través del espacio o la materia los neutrinos se transforman mágicamente de uno en otro de tres posibles tipos o «sabores. «Para estudiar estas oscilaciones, se han llevado a cabo dos series de experimentos en el Laboratorio Nacional de Accelerator Fermi (MiniBooNE y NOvA). En estos experimentos, los científicos generan una intensa corriente de neutrinos en un acelerador de partículas, luego los envían a detectores de partículas durante un largo período de tiempo (MiniBooNE) o a quinientas millas de la fuente (NOvA).Conociendo la distribución original de los sabores de neutrinos, los experimentalistas recogen datos relacionados con las interacciones de los neutrinos con los núcleos atómicos en los detectores. A partir de esa información, pueden calcular cualquier cambio en los sabores de neutrinos a lo largo del tiempo o la distancia. En el caso de los detectores MiniBooNE y NOvA, los núcleos son del isótopo carbono-12, que tiene seis protones y seis neutrones.»Nuestro equipo entró en escena porque estos experimentos requieren un modelo muy preciso de las interacciones de los neutrinos con los núcleos detectores en un gran rango de energía», dijo Noemi Rocco, una posdoctora de la división de Física de Argonne y Fermilab. Dada la esquividad de los neutrinos, lograr una descripción completa de estas reacciones es un desafío formidable.El modelo de física nuclear del equipo de interacciones de neutrinos con un solo nucleón y un par de ellos es el más preciso hasta ahora. «El nuestro es el primer enfoque para modelar estas interacciones a un nivel tan microscópico», dijo Rocco. «Los enfoques anteriores no eran tan finos. «Uno de los hallazgos importantes del equipo, basado en los cálculos llevados a cabo en la supercomputadora Mira ahora retirada en la Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), fue que la interacción del par de nucleones es crucial para modelar las interacciones de neutrinos con nu Clei con exactitud. El ALCF es una instalación de usuario de la Oficina de Ciencia DOE.»Cuanto más grandes son los núcleos en el detector, mayor es la probabilidad de que los neutrinos interactúen con ellos», dijo Lovato. «En el futuro, planeamos extender nuestro modelo a datos de núcleos más grandes, a saber, los de oxígeno y argón, en apoyo de experimentos planeados en Japón y los EE. UU.».Rocco añadió que «Para esos cálculos, nos basaremos en computadoras ALCF aún más potentes, el sistema Theta existente y la próxima máquina exascale, Aurora. «Los científicos esperan que, eventualmente, surja una imagen completa de oscilaciones de sabor tanto para neutrinos como para sus antipartículas, llamados «antineutrinos». «Ese conocimiento puede arrojar luz sobre por qué el universo se construye a partir de materia en lugar de antimateria — una de las preguntas fundamentales sobre el universo.

Link Original:Quantum Physics News


Liquid’ light shows social behaviour

Could photons, light particles, really condense? And how will this «liquid light» behave? Condensed light is an example of a Bose-Einstein condensate: The theory has been there for 100 years, but University of Twente researchers have now demonstrated the effect even at room temperature. For this, they created a micro-size mirror with channels in which photons actually flow like a liquid. In these channels, the photons try to stay together as group by choosing the path that leads to the lowest losses, and thus, in a way, demonstrate «social behavior.» The results are published in Nature Communications.

A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is typically a sort of wave in which the separate particles can not be seen anymore: There is a wave of matter, a superfluid that typically is formed at temperatures close to absolute zero. Helium, for example, becomes a superfluid at those temperatures, with remarkable properties. The phenomenon was predicted by Albert Einstein almost 100 years ago, based on the work of Satyendra Nath Bose; this state of matter was named for the researchers. One type of elementary particle that can form a Bose-Einstein condensate is the photon, the light particle. UT researcher Jan Klärs and his team developed a mirror structure with channels. Light traveling through the channels behaves like a superfluid and also moves in a preferred direction. Extremely low temperatures are not required in this case, and it works at room temperature.


The structure is the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer, in which a channel splits into two channels, and then rejoins again. In such interferometers, the wave nature of photons manifests, in which a photon can be in both channels at the same time. At the reunification point, there are now two options: The light can either take a channel with a closed end, or a channel with an open end. Jan Klärs and his team found that the liquid decides for itself which path to take by adjusting its frequency of oscillation. In this case, the photons try to stay together by choosing the path that leads to the lowest losses—the channel with the closed end. You could call it «social behavior,» according to researcher Klärs. Other types of bosons, like fermions, prefer staying separate.

The mirror structure somewhat resembles that of a laser, in which light is reflected back and forth between two mirrors. The major difference is in the extremely high reflection of the mirrors: 99.9985 percent. This value is so high that photons don’t get the chance to escape; they will be absorbed again. It is in this stadium that the photon gas starts taking the same temperature as room temperature via thermalization. Technically speaking, it then resembles the radiation of a black body: Radiation is in equilibrium with matter. This thermalization is the crucial difference between a normal laser and a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons.
In superconductive devices at which the electrical resistance becomes zero, Bose-Einstein condensates play a major role. The photonic microstructures now presented could be used as basic units in a system that solves mathematical problems like the Traveling Salesman problem. But primarily, the paper shows insight into yet another remarkable property of light.

Link Original: https://www.scientiststudy.com/2021/10/liquid-light-shows-social-behaviour.html?fbclid=IwAR3x_CZFiidVuOYU4vCFOltF7S54q8WLrTudDchyEf5Q-ZgyHEiOX3js7k8


The ‘X17’ particle: Scientists may have discovered the fifth force of nature

A new paper suggests that the mysterious X17 subatomic particle is indicative of a fifth force of nature.


Physicists have long known of four fundamental forces of nature: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. 

Now, they might have evidence of a fifth force. 

The discovery of a fifth force of nature could help explain the mystery of dark matter, which is proposed to make up around 85 percent of the universe’s mass. It could also pave the way for a unified fifth force theory, one that joins together electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces as «manifestations of one grander, more fundamental force,» as theoretical physicist Jonathan Feng put it in 2016.

The new findings build upon a study published in 2016 that offered the first hint of a fifth force.

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Scientists Demonstrate “Liquid Light” at Room Temperature for the First Time

Researchers from Italy and Canada have made liquid light at room temperatures for the first time. The work paves the way for studying quantum hydrodynamics further and for future applications of this new type of matter in electronics devices.

A STRANGE FORM OF MATTER

Thanks to technological advances, scientists now have various ways of manipulating matter. Often times, these result in discovering new types of matter that posses unique properties — like the famous metallic hydrogen and the bizarre time crystal. The discovery of such materials leads to a wide range of potential applications in electronics. One of these is the so-called “liquid light,” a strange matter which researchers from the CNR NANOTECH Institute of Nanotechnology in Italy and the Polytechnique Montréal in Canada recently formed at room temperature for the first time.

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Físicos dizem ter evidências da ‘quinta força elemental’ da natureza

Pesquisadores na Hungria encontraram evidências da existência de uma quinta partícula fundamental, um bóson, que pode nos ajudar a explicar mistérios do universo como a matéria escura

 

Nosso universo é regido por quatro forças elementais: eletromagnetismo, gravidade e as forças nucleares forte e fraca. Elas são associadas a partículas fundamentais, os bósons: fótons para o eletromagnetismo, gravitons (ainda não detectados) para a gravidade, gluons para a força nuclear forte e W e Z para a força nuclear fraca.

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