Does Information Carry Mass?

If information carries mass, could it be the dark matter physicists are craving?

The existence of dark energy and dark matter was inferred in order to correctly predict the expansion of the universe and the rotational velocity of galaxies. In this view, dark energy could be the source of the centrifugal force expanding the universe (it is what accounts for the Hubble constant in the leading theories), while dark matter could be the centripetal force (an additional gravity source) necessary to stabilize galaxies and clusters of galaxies, since there isn’t enough ordinary mass to keep them together. Among other hypotheses, dark energy and dark matter are believed to be related to the vacuum fluctuations, and huge efforts have been devoted to detecting it. The fact that no evidence has yet been found calls for a change of perspective that could be due to information theory.

How could we measure the mass of information?
Dr. Melvin Vopson, of the University of Portsmouth, has a hypothesis he calls the mass-energy-information equivalence. It extends the already existing information-energy equivalence by proposing information has mass. Initial works on Shannon’s classical information theory, its applications to quantum mechanics by Dr. Wheeler, and Landauer’s principle predicting that erasing one bit of information would release a tiny amount of heat, connect information to energy. Therefore, through Einstein’s equivalence between mass and energy, information – once created – has mass. The figure below depicts the extended equivalence principle.

In order to find the mass of digital information, one would start with an empty data storage device, measuring its total mass with a highly sensitive device. Once the information is recorded in the device, its mass is measured again. The next step is to erase one file and measure again. The limiting step is the fact that such an ultra-sensitive device doesn’t exist yet. In his paper published in the journal AIP Advances, Vopson proposes that this device could be in the form of an interferometer similar to LIGO, or a weighing machine like a Kibble balance. In the same paper, Vopson describes the mathematical basis for the mechanism and physics by which information acquires mass, and formulates this powerful principle, proposing a possible experiment to test it.

In regard to dark matter, Vopson says that his estimate of the ‘information bit content’ of the universe is very close to the number of bits of information that the visible universe would contain to make up all the missing dark matter, as estimated by M.P. Gough and published in 2008,.

This idea is synchronistic with the recent discovery that sound carries mass (, i.e., phonons are massive.

Vopson is applying for a grant in order to design and build the measurement device and perform the experiments. We are so looking forward to his results!

RSF in perspective

Both dark matter and dark energy have been inferred as a consequence of neglecting spin in the structure of space-time. In the frame of the Generalized Holographic approach, spin is the natural source of centrifugal and centripetal force that emerges from the gradient density across scales, just as a hurricane emerges due to pressure and temperature gradients. The vacuum energy of empty space – the classical or cosmological vacuum – has been estimated to be 10−9 joules per cubic meter. However, vacuum energy density at quantum scale is 10113joules per cubic meter. Such a discrepancy of 122 orders of magnitude difference in vacuum densities between micro and cosmological scales is known as the vacuum catastrophe. This extremely large density gradient in the Planck field originates spin at all scales.

Additionally, the holographic model explains mass as an emergent property of an information transfer potential between the information-energy stored in a confined volume and the information-energy in the surface or boundary of that volume, with respect to the size or volume of a bit of information. Each bit of information-energy voxelating the surface and volume is spinning at an extremely fast speed. Space is composed of these voxels, named Planck Spherical Units (PSU), which are a quanta of action. The expressed or unfolded portion of the whole information is what we call mass. For more details on how the holographic approach explains dark mass and dark energy, please see our RSF article on the Vacuum Catastrophe (

Link original:

Physicists solve a 140-year-old mystery


  • Researchers discover a method of extracting previously unavailable information from superconductors.
  • The study builds on a 19th-century discovery by physicist Edward Hall.
  • The research promises to lead to a new generation of semiconductor materials and devices.


New research, led by IBM, made a breakthrough in resolving a mystery that has baffled physicists for 140 years. It promises to lead to a new generation of semiconductor materials and devices that use them.

Leer Más

How Hackers Can Use Your Boarding Pass To Easily Steal Personal Information

Your boarding pass contains a lot more data that you might realize.

Etay Maor, chief security officer at global threat intelligence firm IntSights, travels often. In fact, he took more than 100 flights over the past year. During his trips, he noticed a troubling trend: Passengers leaving their boarding passes behind on the plane.

“The problem is, people don’t realize that all your personal information is encoded right there,” Maor said. Some airlines keep more information than others, he noted, but even the most basic information can be used to gather more details about you.

If that has you worried (and honestly, it should), here’s a look at what kind of information can be unlocked with a boarding pass and what you can do to protect yourself.

How Hackers Can Exploit Your Boarding Pass

Leer Más

Quantum Teleportation Enters the Real World







Two separate teams of scientists have taken quantum teleportation from the lab into the real world. Researchers working in Calgary, Canada and Hefei, China, used existing fiber optics networks to transmit small units of information across cities via quantum entanglement — Einstein’s «spooky action at a distance.»Stepping Outside the LabAccording to quantum mechanics, some objects, like photons or electrons, can be entangled.

Leer Más

How ‘wi-fi’ connects human brains and explains why people have ‘gut feelings’







Un libro pobre en comparación con toda la investigación que hay en el campo, en especial la misma que hizo Jocobo Grimberg en el area de la”no localidad”… pero un ejemplo interesante de la expansión de conciencia que hay hoy y que cada vez habra mas… Mucho de lo que experimentamos en el Focar esta basado en ciertas leyes que en este articulo y libro lo tocan aun que superficialmente … Es bueno para laicos y amigos que quieren entender algo de lo que hacemos pero no se quieren meter mucho…

Humans brains are interconnected through type of ‘wi-fi’ which allows us to pick up far more information about other people than we are aware of, a leading professor claims.

Leer Más

4 Cosas Sobre la Inteligencia Que Probablemente No Tenías Idea


Los encuentros con personas sabelotodo nos prueban que saber muchas cosas no te hace ser una persona inteligente. De hecho, lo que sabes, que está basado en la información que haz acumulado a través de libros, escuela, etc., es referido comúnmente como inteligencia cristalizada. Y es diferente de otro fluido de inteligencia, una forma menos concreta de inteligencia, que está basada en menos memorización y más pensamiento abstracto, como la habilidad de identificar patrones, resolver problemas y razonar. Leer Más