Como usar brincadeiras para ensinar habilidades essenciais a crianças, segundo Harvard

Pensar antes de agir, planejar e traçar objetivos, focar a atenção, ser flexível e controlar as emoções são habilidades consideradas essenciais na vida adulta. Em Harvard, o Center on the Developing Child, que estuda desenvolvimento infantil, preparou um guia para ensinar pais, professores e cuidadores a estimular, em crianças de todas as idades, essas que são conhecidas como “habilidades para a vida” (veja o guia completo na segunda parte desta reportagem).

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Neuroscience Reveals: Gratitude Literally Rewires Your Brain to be Happier

When you say “thank you”, do you really mean it or is it just politeness to which you give little attention? Neuroscientists have found that if you really feel it when you say it, you’ll be happier and healthier. The regular practice of expressing gratitude is not a New Age fad; it’s a facet of the human condition that reaps true benefits to those who mean it.

Psychologists Dr. Robert Emmons of the University of California at Davis and Dr. Michael McCullough of the University of Miami published a study in 2015 that looked at the physical outcomes of practicing gratitude. One third of the subjects in the study were asked to keep a daily journal of things that happened during the week for which they were grateful. Another third was asked to write down daily irritations or events that had displeased them. The last third of the group was asked to write down daily situations and events with no emphasis on either positive or negative emotional attachment. At the end of the 10-week study, each group was asked to record how they felt physically and generally about life.

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A educação que recebemos em nossa infância e o tipo de relacionamento que estabelecemos com nossos pais deixa marcas profundas. Sua atenção ou negligência, sua crítica ou elogio, determinam o estilo de apego que iremos desenvolver e tem um enorme impacto na imagem que formamos de nós mesmos, nossa autoestima e a atitude que assumimos antes da vida.

No entanto, tudo parece indicar que as consequências da crítica na infância não se limitam ao nível psicológico, mas também alteram a configuração do cérebro. Neurocientistas da Universidade Binghamton descobriram que, quando os pais criticam excessivamente seus filhos, eles afetam as áreas do cérebro dedicadas a processar estados emocionais.

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The Heart and the Bottle: A Tender Illustrated Fable of What Happens When We Deny Our Difficult Emotions

 

 

 

 

 

“Children … are the most attentive, curious, eager, observant, sensitive, quick, and generally congenial readers on earth,” E.B. White famously asserted in an interview, admonishing: “Anyone who writes down to children is simply wasting his time. You have to write up, not down.”And yet down we write still, deaf to White’s wisdom and to Tolkien’s insistence that there is no such thing as writing “for children” and to Gaiman’s crusade against the spiritual disservice of shielding children from difficult emotions.

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