A Fábrica de Cretinos Digitais. Este é o título do último livro do neurocientista francês Michel Desmurget, diretor de pesquisa do Instituto Nacional de Saúde da França, em que apresenta, com dados concretos e de forma conclusiva, como os dispositivos digitais estão afetando seriamente — e para o mal — o desenvolvimento neural de crianças e jovens.Leer Más
Devices also limit interaction time
Researchers voiced other reasons for cautious use of mobile devices by young children. “The portable nature of mobile devices allows them to be used in any location, such as while waiting for appointments, or in line at a grocery store. The screen use, then, could interfere with sensitive and responsive interactions with parents or practicing self-soothing behaviors that support optimal development,” said Lawrence.
The research team recruited participants by handing out flyers at preschools and community events. Data were collected between July 1, 2016, and Jan. 11, 2019. During individual 90-minute visits to an on-campus research laboratory, children were asked to complete 10 tasks to evaluate their ability to self-regulate. Tasks were as varied as walking a line slowly, taking turns with the researcher in building a tower out of blocks, and delaying gratification — for example, being asked to hold off unwrapping a gift while the researcher briefly left the room. Parents were asked about screen use using a novel survey designed by Lawrence, and researchers calculated the children’s reported age at first use of screen media and average time spent per week on each device.
Other findings include:
- There was substantial variation in the amount of time children spent with screen media devices in the average week in this community sample. Screen time for traditional devices (television, computers) ranged from 0 to 68 hours per week, and 0 to 14 hours per week for mobile devices (tablets, smartphones).
- Children’s screen time in the average week was not related to their family’s income in this sample, but children growing up in higher-income households started using mobile devices at a younger age than lower-income households.
- Screen time also did not differ by racial/ethnic minority status in this sample.
Additionally, children’s exposure to what the researchers consider traditional screen devices (televisions, computers) in the average week was not related to their self-regulation, in contrast to most previous research. Lawrence speculates that messaging about providing child-directed, educational content and cautioning parents to monitor children’s viewing has reached parents and has been effective, at least among some groups.
This is a small study, but the beginning of a long-term longitudinal study of children’s development of self-regulation and looking at all screen media devices over multiple years with more children and parents, researchers said.
If you’re one of the many parents struggling to stem the flow of unwanted toys into your home, here’s some good news. Several experts suggest that gifting children vacations and experiences instead of toys can boost their brain development.
Um foguete, uma varinha mágica, um trem ou qualquer tipo de animal estão entre as muitas formas que um simples graveto pode tomar pela criatividade e imaginação (principalmente) das crianças. O exercício é importante para o desenvolvimento e para a construção autoral dos pequenos e, ter esta consciência, ajuda os adultos a garantir que haja momentos livres de brinquedos prontos. Leer Más
Acabo de estar en Suiza y quisiera contar lo que he visto sobre el sistema escolar en la etapa 3 a 6, lo que en España es Educación Infantil de segundo ciclo. Se trata de un sistema similar al de Austria, Holanda, Finlandia y prácticamente todos los países desde ahí hacia el norte. Nadie diría que son países “retrasados” en ningún aspecto, ni cultural, ni social ni económicamente, ni por supuesto académicamente.
Idealizada por um físico ganhador do Prêmio Nobel, a Técnica Feynman garante o entendimento profundo de qualquer assunto com quatro passos. De tão eficiente, pessoas inovadoras, como Elon Musk, se baseiam nela para criar seus próprios processos.
To borrow a phrase: love works in mysterious ways. We are born to love and, as it turns out, love and affection are necessary for both optimal positive emotional and physical development. And to be honest, nothing feels better than giving your loved one a warm embrace –or being on the receiving end.
Parece como si los adultos necesitaramos siempre argumentos sobre la utilidad de las cosas para dar valor a lo que en sí mismo es valioso. Pero dado que estamos inmersos en un mundo tan rápido y que va descartando lo que desde siempre ha nutrido el rico mundo infantil (los juegos, los cuentos,las canciones …), merece la pena conocer qué dice la ciencia sobre los efectos de cantar en los niños pequeños.
Researchers have discovered a mysterious group of neurons in the amygdala — a key center for emotional processing in the brain — that stay in an immature, prenatal developmental state throughout childhood. Most of these cells mature rapidly during adolescence, suggesting a key role in the brain’s emotional development, but some stay immature throughout life, suggesting new ideas about how the brain keeps its emotional responses flexible throughout life.
“Most brain cells have matured far beyond this stage by the time you are born,” said study lead author Shawn Sorrells, PhD, a former UCSF researcher who is now assistant professor of neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh. “It’s fascinating that these are some of the very last cells to mature in the human brain, and most do so during puberty, precisely when huge developments in emotional intelligence are going on.”
The amygdala is an almond-shaped brain structure located deep in the brain’s temporal lobes (you actually have two, one on each side of the brain) that plays a key role in learning appropriate emotional responses to our environment. During childhood and adolescence — long after most of the rest of the human brain is finished growing — the amygdala continues to expand by as many as two million neurons, a late growth spurt that researchers believe is likely to play a key role in human emotional development, and which may go awry in neurodevelopmental disorders. For example, this expansion is absent in children with autism, and mood disorders that frequently emerge in adolescence, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have also been linked to problems with amygdala development.
Recent studies had detected a unique group of immature neurons in a region of the amygdala called the paralaminar nuclei (PL), which could help explain the amygdala’s rapid growth, but researchers had little idea where these cells came from or what role they play in mature brain circuits — even whether they are excitatory or inhibitory, the two main functional classes of neurons.
In the new study, published June 21, 2019, in Nature Communications, researchers from the lab of Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, PhD, the Heather and Melanie Muss Endowed Chair and Professor of Neurological Surgery and a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF, set out to understand the identity of these cells and their role in the amygdala’s rapid growth during childhood.
The researchers examined postmortem human amygdala tissue from 49 human brains — ranging in age from 20 gestational weeks to 78 years of age. Using both anatomical and molecular techniques to classify individual neurons’ maturity and function within neural circults, they found that the percentage of immature cells in the PL region of the amygdala remains high throughout childhood, but declines rapidly during adolescence: from birth to age 13, the number of immature cells declines from approximately 90 percent to just under 70 percent, but by the end of adolescence, only about 20 percent of PL cells remain immature.
Based on quantification of neurons in different stages of development coupled with analysis of gene expression patterns in individual neurons extracted from PL, the researchers showed that as the immature cells disappear, they are replaced by mature excitatory neurons — suggesting that the cells have taken their place in the amygdala’s maturing emotion processing circuitry. Since this is the first time these neurons have been clearly studied, scientists don’t know exactly what function the neurons serve, but the timing of their maturation suggests they may play a role in the rapid emotional development that occurs during human adolescence.
“Anyone who’s met a teenager knows that they are going through a rapid and sometimes tumultuous process of emotional learning about how to respond to stress, how to form positive social bonds, and so on,” Sorrells said. “At the same time, adolescence is when many psychiatric disorders known to involve the amygdala first manifest, suggesting that perhaps something has gone wrong with the normal process of emotional and cognitive development — though whether these cells are involved is a matter for future study.”
Notably, the researchers also found that some immature neurons appear to remain in the amygdala throughout life, and were even found in one 77-year-old brain. These results were in stark contrast to the hippocampus — a nearby structure in which the authors recently found that newborn and immature neurons completely decline to undetectable levels by adolescence.
“This is consistent with what we have seen before: that immature neurons are vanishingly rare in the adult hippocampus, but they do appear to persist in the amygdala,” Alvarez-Buylla said. “As far as we can tell, these cells aren’t being born throughout life, but seem to be maintained in an immature state from birth, though we can’t say this for sure given the techniques we’ve used here.”
In other animals, such as mice, new neurons continue to be born throughout life in the memory-forming hippocampus — and possibly at low rates in the amygdala — which researchers believe allows the brain to continuously rewire neural circuits to adapt to new experiences and environments. Following on the authors’ 2018 study showing that the birth of new neurons declines in the human brain during childhood and is very rare or absent in adults, the new study suggests that the human brain may maintain reserves of immature neurons throughout life, using these “Peter Pan” cells in a similar manner to the neurogenesis seen in other species — as new cells to be called on as needed to keep the brain’s emotional responses flexible and adaptable into old age.
“You could imagine these immature cells let the brain continue to sculpt the structure of neural circuits and their growth once you are out in the world experiencing what it’s like,” Sorrells said. “Of course, that’s just speculation at this point — one of the fascinating questions these findings open up for future study.”
Whether new neurons are born in the adult primate or human brain remains controversial. In 2018, Alvarez-Buylla, Sorrells and colleagues published results of the most rigorous search yet for new neurons in the human hippocampus, and they found that the birth of new neurons declined rapidly in childhood and was undetectable in adults.
Subsequently, other groups published data that appears to show newborn neurons in the adult human hippocampus, but Alvarez-Buylla and colleagues believe these studies rely too strongly on a small number of molecular markers for newborn neurons. They have shown that these markers can also be found in fully mature neurons and in non-neuronal cells called glia — which are known to continue dividing throughout life.
“Identifying new neurons is technically very challenging,” Alvarez-Buylla said. “It’s easy to forget that the molecular markers we use to identify particular molecules are not produced for our benefit — cells are using these molecules for their own biological needs, which are always going to be messy from the perspective of someone looking for simple classification. This is why we have endeavored to examine as many lines of evidence as possible — not just molecular markers but also cells’ shape and appearance — to make sure we are confident in what types of cells we are actually looking at in these analyses.”
The new study in the amygdala uses comprehensive single-cell gene expression techniques to sensitively detect immature neurons based on multiple lines of molecular evidence, and reinforces the group’s earlier findings in the hippocampus — showing that the precursors that divide to give birth to new neurons disappear within the first two years of life in the human amygdala, and that most immature neurons disappear during adolescence.
“Single-cell sequencing not only clearly identifies these long-lived immature neurons, but also shows that they express many developmental genes involved in axon development, synaptogenesis, dendrite morphogenesis, and even neuronal migration,” Sorrells said. “These cells could be erroneously assumed to be newborn neurons, but based on our developmental perspective, and the fact that we see few dividing cells present nearby, it looks as though they are already present at birth and decline throughout life.”
Slow Parenting: por uma infância sem pressa
Da escola para a natação, da natação para o inglês, do inglês para a aula de música, da aula de música para o espanhol, do espanhol para o judô, do judô para o reforço escolar e por aí vai… Leer Más