Excess of Immune Cells Found in Brains of People with Autism

About four years ago, pathologist Matthew Anderson was examining slices of postmortem brain tissue from an individual with autism under a microscope when he noticed something extremely odd: T cells swarming around a narrow space between blood vessels and neural tissue. The cells were somehow getting through the blood-brain barrier, a wall of cells that separates circulating blood from extracellular fluid, neurons, and other cell types in the central nervous system, explains Anderson, who works at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. “I just have seen so many brains that I know that this is not normal.”

He soon identified more T-cell swarms, called lymphocytic cuffs, in a few other postmortem brains of people who had been diagnosed with autism. Not long after that, he started to detect another oddity in the brain tissue—tiny bubbles, or blebs. “I’d never seen them in any other brain tissue that I’ve looked at for many, many different diseases,” he says. Anderson began to wonder whether the neurological features he was observing were specific to autism.

Leer Más

Immune cell that kills most cancers discovered by accident by British scientists

British scientists have accidentally discovered a new type of cell that kills most cancers. The new discovery could be a huge breakthrough in the search for a universal cure for cancer, writes British newspaper The Telegraph.

new type of immune cell which kills most cancers has been discovered by accident by British scientists, in a finding which could herald a major breakthrough in treatment.

Researchers at Cardiff University were analysing blood from a bank in Wales, looking for immune cells that could fight bacteria, when they found an entirely new type of T-cell.

That new immune cell carries a never-before-seen receptor which acts like a grappling hook, latching on to most human cancers, while ignoring healthy cells.

In laboratory studies, immune cells equipped with the new receptor were shown to kill lung, skin, blood, colon, breast, bone, prostate, ovarian, kidney and cervical cancer.

Leer Más

Hyper-Long Telomeres Give Non-Genetically Modified Mice Longer, Healthier Lives

Scientists at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) generated the first mice that have super-long telomeres in every one of their body cells. Studies with the animals showed that in comparison with mice that have normal length telomeres, the hyper-long telomere animals lived on average nearly 13% longer, were leaner with less white fat tissue, and had better metabolic health. The researchers generated the mice from embryonic stem (ES) cells that carry the hyper-long telomeric repeats capping the ends of their chromosomes. The most relevant achievement for the scientists is that for the first time longevity was significantly increased without any genetic modification. “This finding supports the idea that, when it comes to determining longevity, genes are not the only thing to consider,” commented research lead Maria Blasco, PhD, head of the CNIO Telomeres and Telomerase Group. “There is a margin for extending life without altering the genes.”

Blasco and colleagues published their findings in Nature Communications, in a paper titled, “Mice with hyper-long telomeres show less metabolic aging and longer lifespans.”

Leer Más

Tatuagem para diabéticos muda de cor, de acordo com os níveis de açúcar no sangue

Pesquisadores desenvolveram uma nova tinta de tatuagem que muda de cor que responde a mudanças no corpo, como açúcar no sangue e níveis de sódio.

Usando um líquido com biossensores em vez da tinta tradicional, os cientistas querem transformar a superfície da pele humana em uma “tela interativa” – uma idéia que torna essa prova de conceito emocionante de se assistir. Tecnologias como essa podem se tornar uma nova maneira revolucionária de monitorar a saúde.

O projeto, chamado DermalAbyss , é uma colaboração entre pesquisadores do MIT e da Harvard Medical School, combinando esforços da Fluid Interfaces e da biotecnologia.

Leer Más

Alzheimer: cientistas diminuem inflamação no cérebro e revertem demência

Cientistas dizem que, pela primeira vez, conseguiram reverter a demência em ratos reduzindo a inflamação no cérebro, em vez de atacar as proteínas invasoras típicas que provocam o problema, as chamadas as placas amilóides encontradas em pessoas com doença de Alzheimer.

O último estudo publicado na Science Translational Medicine sugere que o direcionamento da inflamação no cérebro pode deter a demência.

Leer Más