CIerto buscador de la verdad se acercó a uno de los discípulos de Mohsin Ardabili y dijo: “Al parecer, tu maestro pasa los días haciendo que la gente desista de sus ideas y creencias. ¿Cómo puede surgir algo bueno de tal comportamiento?” El discípulo dijo: “La joya se descubre después de que se haya eliminado la tierra que la cubre. La joya falsa se fabrica aplicando capa tras capa de sustancia impura – y que sin embargo brilla – a cualquier superficie. “La maleza asfixia a la joven viña, pero nadie dice: ‘Maten a la viña, dejen que crezca la maleza’. El malhechor intenta arrojar el manto del engaño sobre su crimen, mas nadie dice: ‘Que el manto sea admirado’.” El buscador de la verdad dijo: “¿Cómo puedo haber sido tan obtuso para que estas consideraciones no penetraran en mi mente? Pero ¿por qué no dan mayor difusión a estas cosas, para que todos puedan beneficiarse de este conocimiento elevado?” “Se divulga todos los días mediante el comportamiento de los sabios. Figura en los libros de los santos. Se manifiesta en el cuidado de los jardines y en la fabricación de adornos. ¿Acaso los descuidados se fijan en aquellas cosas que no aumentarán su descuido?”

El monasterio mágico

Link Original: Ya está disponible la nueva traducción en todas las tiendas online, en formato papel. Muy pronto, como ebook + audiolibroTambién lo puedes leer gratis aquí:https://idriesshahfoundation.org/…/el-monasterio…/

El método


A man went to a physician, feeling very much out of condition. ‘Ah, yes’ said the doctor, ‘you must do this and not do that; you must eat this and drink that…’ and he droned on for a time. Presently the patient started to walk out. ‘You haven’t paid for my advice’ said the leech. ‘Ah, but I am not taking it!’ It is very true that people don’t value things that they get free. Equally, of course, for what it is worth, they won’t pay for things if they don’t intend to have them…

Special Illumination

Read the book, here:http://idriesshahfoundation.org/…/special-illumination…/

A man went to a physician


Babies can tell who has close relationships based on one clue: saliva

Sharing food and kissing are among the signals babies use to interpret their social world, according to a new study.

Learning to navigate social relationships is a skill that is critical for surviving in human societies. For babies and young children, that means learning who they can count on to take care of them.

MIT neuroscientists have now identified a specific signal that young children and even babies use to determine whether two people have a strong relationship and a mutual obligation to help each other: whether those two people kiss, share food, or have other interactions that involve sharing saliva.

In a new study, the researchers showed that babies expect people who share saliva to come to one another’s aid when one person is in distress, much more so than when people share toys or interact in other ways that do not involve saliva exchange. The findings suggest that babies can use these cues to try to figure out who around them is most likely to offer help, the researchers say.

“Babies don’t know in advance which relationships are the close and morally obligating ones, so they have to have some way of learning this by looking at what happens around them,” says Rebecca Saxe, the John W. Jarve Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, a member of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research and the Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines (CBMM), and the senior author of the new study.

MIT postdoc Ashley Thomas, who is also affiliated with the CBMM, is the lead author of the study, which appears today in Science. Brandon Woo, a Harvard University graduate student; Daniel Nettle, a professor of behavioral science at Newcastle University; and Elizabeth Spelke, a professor of psychology at Harvard and CBMM member, are also authors of the paper.

Sharing saliva

In human societies, people typically distinguish between “thick” and “thin” relationships. Thick relationships, usually found between family members, feature strong levels of attachment, obligation, and mutual responsiveness. Anthropologists have also observed that people in thick relationships are more willing to share bodily fluids such as saliva.

“That inspired both the question of whether infants distinguish between those types of relationships, and whether saliva sharing might be a really good cue they could use to recognize them,” Thomas says.

To study those questions, the researchers observed toddlers (16.5 to 18.5 months) and babies (8.5 to 10 months) as they watched interactions between human actors and puppets. In the first set of experiments, a puppet shared an orange with one actor, then tossed a ball back and forth with a different actor.

After the children watched these initial interactions, the researchers observed the children’s reactions when the puppet showed distress while sitting between the two actors. Based on an earlier study of nonhuman primates, the researchers hypothesized that babies would look first at the person whom they expected to help. That study showed that when baby monkeys cry, other members of the troop look to the baby’s parents, as if expecting them to step in.

The MIT team found that the children were more likely to look toward the actor who had shared food with the puppet, not the one who had shared a toy, when the puppet was in distress.

In a second set of experiments, designed to focus more specifically on saliva, the actor either placed her finger in her mouth and then into the mouth of the puppet, or placed her finger on her forehead and then onto the forehead of the puppet. Later, when the actor expressed distress while standing between the two puppets, children watching the video were more likely to look toward the puppet with whom she had shared saliva.

Social cues

The findings suggest that saliva sharing is likely an important cue that helps infants to learn about their own social relationships and those of people around them, the researchers say.

“The general skill of learning about social relationships is very useful,” Thomas says. “One reason why this distinction between thick and thin might be important for infants in particular, especially human infants, who depend on adults for longer than many other species, is that it might be a good way to figure out who else can provide the support that they depend on to survive.”

The researchers did their first set of studies shortly before Covid-19 lockdowns began, with babies who came to the lab with their families. Later experiments were done over Zoom. The results that the researchers saw were similar before and after the pandemic, confirming that pandemic-related hygiene concerns did not affect the outcome.

“We actually know the results would have been similar if it hadn’t been for the pandemic,” Saxe says. “You might wonder, did kids start to think very differently about sharing saliva when suddenly everybody was talking about hygiene all the time? So, for that question, it’s very useful that we had an initial data set collected before the pandemic.”

Doing the second set of studies on Zoom also allowed the researchers to recruit a much more diverse group of children because the subjects were not limited to families who could come to the lab in Cambridge during normal working hours.

In future work, the researchers hope to perform similar studies with infants in cultures that have different types of family structures. In adult subjects, they plan to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study what parts of the brain are involved in making saliva-based assessments about social relationships.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health; the Patrick J. McGovern Foundation; the Guggenheim Foundation; a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Doctoral Fellowship; MIT’s Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines; and the Siegel Foundation.

Link Original: https://news.mit.edu/2022/babies-relationships-saliva-0120?fbclid=IwAR2BA8gvjkO0Z10zT4F2iw8-pq2kKftNKhK6zsOuXErOiTTZARrQVOPRLVY


“Sé que habrá trébol cuando el clima mejore”, dijo el asno, “pero lo quiero ya. Todos reciben heno. ¿Cómo resolver el problema? No lo sé, estoy demasiado ocupado pensando en el trébol.”

El monasterio mágico

Link Original: Ya está disponible la nueva traducción en todas las tiendas online, en formato papel. Muy pronto, como ebook + audiolibroTambién lo puedes leer gratis aquí:https://idriesshahfoundation.org/…/el-monasterio…/

El Asno


El poeta Sufi Hafiz de Shiraz escribió el famoso poema: ‘Si esa doncella turca, Sharazi, tomara mi corazón en sus manos, le daría Bokhara por el lunar de su mejilla; o Samarcanda.’ Tamerlán el conquistador hizo llevar ante sí a Hafiz y le dijo: “¿Cómo puedes regalar Bokhara y Samarcanda por una mujer? Además, se encuentran en mis dominios, ¡y yo no permitiré a nadie que insinúe que no me pertenecen!” Hafiz le respondió: “Tu mezquindad te ha dado poder. Mi generosidad me ha hecho caer en tu poder. Tu mezquindad es, obviamente, más efectiva que mi prodigalidad.” Tamerlán se rió y dejó marchar al Sufi.

La sabiduría de los idiotas

Link Original: La nueva traducción ya está disponible en todos los formatos: papel + eBook + audiolibro. También, como siempre, lo puedes leer gratuitamente aquí: https://idriesshahfoundation.org/…/la-sabiduria-de-los…/

Timur y Hafiz


What is Poison?

He replied with a beautiful answer – Anything which is more than our necessity is Poison. It may be Power, Wealth, Hunger, Ego, Greed, Laziness, Love, Ambition, Hate or anything

What is fear…..?

Non acceptance of uncertainty.

If we accept that uncertainty, it becomes adventure…!

What is envy ?

Non acceptance of good in othersIf we accept that good, it becomes inspiration…!

What is Anger?

Non acceptance of things which are beyond our control.If we accept, it becomes tolerance…!

What is hatred?

Non acceptance of person as he is. If we accept person unconditionally, it becomes love…!

Rumi´s anwer to questions asked by a disciple


Does Information Carry Mass?

If information carries mass, could it be the dark matter physicists are craving?

The existence of dark energy and dark matter was inferred in order to correctly predict the expansion of the universe and the rotational velocity of galaxies. In this view, dark energy could be the source of the centrifugal force expanding the universe (it is what accounts for the Hubble constant in the leading theories), while dark matter could be the centripetal force (an additional gravity source) necessary to stabilize galaxies and clusters of galaxies, since there isn’t enough ordinary mass to keep them together. Among other hypotheses, dark energy and dark matter are believed to be related to the vacuum fluctuations, and huge efforts have been devoted to detecting it. The fact that no evidence has yet been found calls for a change of perspective that could be due to information theory.

How could we measure the mass of information?
Dr. Melvin Vopson, of the University of Portsmouth, has a hypothesis he calls the mass-energy-information equivalence. It extends the already existing information-energy equivalence by proposing information has mass. Initial works on Shannon’s classical information theory, its applications to quantum mechanics by Dr. Wheeler, and Landauer’s principle predicting that erasing one bit of information would release a tiny amount of heat, connect information to energy. Therefore, through Einstein’s equivalence between mass and energy, information – once created – has mass. The figure below depicts the extended equivalence principle.

In order to find the mass of digital information, one would start with an empty data storage device, measuring its total mass with a highly sensitive device. Once the information is recorded in the device, its mass is measured again. The next step is to erase one file and measure again. The limiting step is the fact that such an ultra-sensitive device doesn’t exist yet. In his paper published in the journal AIP Advances, Vopson proposes that this device could be in the form of an interferometer similar to LIGO, or a weighing machine like a Kibble balance. In the same paper, Vopson describes the mathematical basis for the mechanism and physics by which information acquires mass, and formulates this powerful principle, proposing a possible experiment to test it.

In regard to dark matter, Vopson says that his estimate of the ‘information bit content’ of the universe is very close to the number of bits of information that the visible universe would contain to make up all the missing dark matter, as estimated by M.P. Gough and published in 2008,.

This idea is synchronistic with the recent discovery that sound carries mass (https://resonancefdn.oldrsf.com/sound-has-mass-and-thus-gravity/), i.e., phonons are massive.

Vopson is applying for a grant in order to design and build the measurement device and perform the experiments. We are so looking forward to his results!

RSF in perspective

Both dark matter and dark energy have been inferred as a consequence of neglecting spin in the structure of space-time. In the frame of the Generalized Holographic approach, spin is the natural source of centrifugal and centripetal force that emerges from the gradient density across scales, just as a hurricane emerges due to pressure and temperature gradients. The vacuum energy of empty space – the classical or cosmological vacuum – has been estimated to be 10−9 joules per cubic meter. However, vacuum energy density at quantum scale is 10113joules per cubic meter. Such a discrepancy of 122 orders of magnitude difference in vacuum densities between micro and cosmological scales is known as the vacuum catastrophe. This extremely large density gradient in the Planck field originates spin at all scales.

Additionally, the holographic model explains mass as an emergent property of an information transfer potential between the information-energy stored in a confined volume and the information-energy in the surface or boundary of that volume, with respect to the size or volume of a bit of information. Each bit of information-energy voxelating the surface and volume is spinning at an extremely fast speed. Space is composed of these voxels, named Planck Spherical Units (PSU), which are a quanta of action. The expressed or unfolded portion of the whole information is what we call mass. For more details on how the holographic approach explains dark mass and dark energy, please see our RSF article on the Vacuum Catastrophe (https://resonance.is/the-vacuum-catastrophe/).

Link original:https://www.resonancescience.org/blog/does-information-carry-mass?fbclid=IwAR2gkGFxUvbzGW4bq5nP-M9b6lBVwPX6xBoE9xf3aSS5qm6lG60C7B6Rqhc


A unique brain signal may be the key to human intelligence

Though progress is being made, our brains remain organs of many mysteries. Among these are the exact workings of neurons, with some 86 billion of them in the human brain. Neurons are interconnected in complicated, labyrinthine networks across which they exchange information in the form of electrical signals. We know that signals exit an individual neuron through a fiber called an axon, and also that signals are received by each neuron through input fibers called dendrites.

Understanding the electrical capabilities of dendrites in particular — which, after all, may be receiving signals from countless other neurons at any given moment — is fundamental to deciphering neurons’ communication. It may surprise you to learn, though, that much of everything we assume about human neurons is based on observations made of rodent dendrites — there’s just not a lot of fresh, still-functional human brain tissue available for thorough examination.

For a new study published January 3 in the journal Science, however, scientists got a rare chance to explore some neurons from the outer layer of human brains, and they discovered startling dendrite behaviors that may be unique to humans, and may even help explain how our billions of neurons process the massive amount of information they exchange.

A PUZZLE, SOLVED?

Electrical signals weaken with distance, and that poses a riddle to those seeking to understand the human brain: Human dendrites are known to be about twice as long as rodent dendrites, which means that a signal traversing a human dendrite could be much weaker arriving at its destination than one traveling a rodent’s much shorter dendrite. Says paper co-author biologist Matthew Larkum of Humboldt University in Berlin speaking to LiveScience, “If there was no change in the electrical properties between rodents and people, then that would mean that, in the humans, the same synaptic inputs would be quite a bit less powerful.” Chalk up another strike against the value of animal-based human research. The only way this would not be true is if the signals being exchanged in our brains are not the same as those in a rodent. This is exactly what the study’s authors found.

The researchers worked with brain tissue sliced for therapeutic reasons from the brains of tumor and epilepsy patients. Neurons were resected from the disproportionately thick layers 2 and 3 of the cerebral cortex, a feature special to humans. In these layers reside incredibly dense neuronal networks.

Without blood-borne oxygen, though, such cells only last only for about two days, so Larkum’s lab had no choice but to work around the clock during that period to get the most information from the samples. “You get the tissue very infrequently, so you’ve just got to work with what’s in front of you,” says Larkum. The team made holes in dendrites into which they could insert glass pipettes. Through these, they sent ions to stimulate the dendrites, allowing the scientists to observe their electrical behavior.

In rodents, two type of electrical spikes have been observed in dendrites: a short, one-millisecond spike with the introduction of sodium, and spikes that last 50- to 100-times longer in response to calcium.

In the human dendrites, one type of behavior was observed: super-short spikes occurring in rapid succession, one after the other. This suggests to the researchers that human neurons are “distinctly more excitable ” than rodent neurons, allowing them to successfully traverse our longer dendrites.

In addition, the human neuronal spikes — though they behaved somewhat like rodent spikes prompted by the introduction of sodium — were found to be generated by calcium, essentially the opposite of rodents.

AN EVEN BIGGER SURPRISE

The study also reports a second major finding. Looking to better understand how the brain utilizes these spikes, the team programmed computer models based on their findings. (The brains slices they’d examined could not, of course, be put back together and switched on somehow.)

The scientists constructed virtual neuronal networks, each of whose neurons could could be stimulated at thousands of points along its dendrites, to see how each handled so many input signals. Previous, non-human, research has suggested that neurons add these inputs together, holding onto them until the number of excitatory input signals exceeds the number of inhibitory signals, at which point the neuron fires the sum of them from its axon out into the network.

However, this isn’t what Larkum’s team observed in their model. Neurons’ output was inverse to their inputs: The more excitatory signals they received, the less likely they were to fire off. Each had a seeming “sweet spot” when it came to input strength.

What the researchers believe is going on is that dendrites and neurons may be smarter than previously suspected, processing input information as it arrives. Mayank Mehta of UC Los Angeles, who’s not involved in the research, tells LiveScience, “It doesn’t look that the cell is just adding things up — it’s also throwing things away.” This could mean each neuron is assessing the value of each signal to the network and discarding “noise.” It may also be that different neurons are optimized for different signals and thus tasks.

Much in the way that octopuses distribute decision-making across a decentralized nervous system, the implication of the new research is that, at least in humans, it’s not just the neuronal network that’s smart, it’s all of the individual neurons it contains. This would constitute exactly the kind of computational super-charging one would hope to find somewhere in the amazing human brain.

Link Original:https://bigthink.com/neuropsych/human-neuron-signals/#Echobox=1629474922



Un erudito preguntó al gran sabio Afzal de Iskandariya:“¿Qué puedes decirme de Alim Azimi, tu maestro, a quien atribuyes cualidades que te han moldeado?”Afzal respondió:“Su poesía me intoxicaba, su amor a la humanidad me inundaba, y su abnegación en el servicio me alborozaba.”El erudito dijo:“¡Tal hombre ciertamente sería capaz de moldear ángeles!”Afzal continuó:“Esas son las cualidades que Alim te habría recomendado a ti. Por lo que respecta a las cualidades que lo capacitaron para ayudar a los hombres a trascender lo ordinario, Hazrat Alim Azimi me irritaba, lo cual hizo que examinase mi irritación para averiguar su origen. Alim Azimi me encolerizaba de modo que yo pudiese sentir y transformar mi cólera. Alim Azimi permitía que lo atacasen, de modo que la gente pudiese ver la bestialidad de sus atacantes y no unirse a ellos. Él nos mostraba lo extraño, para que lo extraño se convirtiese en común y nos pudiéramos dar cuenta de lo que ello realmente es.

”La exploración dérmica

Link Original: Puedes leer el libro, gratis, aquí:http://idriesshahfoundation.org/…/la-exploracion-dermica/

Lo extraño se convierte en común