Altos níveis de arsênio na água engarrafada são dectados em teste

 

Testes independentes encomendados pelo Centro de Saúde Ambiental (CEH), na Califórnia (EUA), encontraram altos níveis de arsênico tóxico nas marcas de água engarrafada Starkey, de propriedade da Whole Foods, e Peñafiel, da empresa Keurig Dr Pepper. A quantidade detectada estava acima do nível aceito e fabricantes e varejistas foram notificados.

“Os consumidores estão sendo desnecessariamente expostos sem conhecimento ou consentimento”, disse Michael Green, diretor executivo da CEH. “Os clientes normalmente compram água engarrafada a custos exorbitantemente altos, com a suposição de que é mais seguro e saudável beber do que a água da torneira, sem saber que estão ingerindo um metal extremamente tóxico ligado a defeitos congênitos e câncer.”

Em entrevista ao HuffPost, Green afirmou que os níveis exatos de arsênio não poderiam ser divulgados porque a organização está processando a Whole Foods e a Keurig Dr Pepper. Enquanto isso, a Keurig Dr Pepper anunciou a retirada de sua Peñafiel. O recall inclui todos os produtos de água mineral da marca, desde garrafinhas até os galões.

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Tengo la clara impresión, basada en el contacto que durante cuarenta años tuve con personas de comunidades cristianas de todo el mundo, de que el proceso inverso no es en absoluto tan fácil. El cristiano, por razones que son bastante claras pero que se mencionan con poca frecuencia, descubre que tenderá a acercarse al musulmán como si este fuese un ignorante que está perdido y necesitado de salvación. Ahora bien, esta actitud no es de ninguna manera universal, sino que se basa en causas históricas y creo que es solo recientemente que muchos han podido dejar de lado estos hechos, subsanarlos, de manera tal que ello conlleve una actitud de comprensión potencial.

El musulmán tiene la ventaja de que en su libro sagrado, el Corán, donde cada palabra posee la fuerza de la ley divina para él, se establece claramente que los cristianos son los amigos de los musulmanes y que ellos, junto con otros creyentes que hacen lo correcto, tienen la aceptación de Dios.

Como ejemplos de estas declaraciones, permítanme citar brevemente del Corán donde se dice:

Los creyentes, los judíos, los sabeos o cristianos, quienes crean en Dios y en el último día y hacen lo que es correcto: no han de tener nada que temer o lamentar. (Capítulo 2, 62)
Y:

… los más cercanos afectivamente a los creyentes son aquellos que dicen “Somos cristianos”. Eso es porque hay sacerdotes y monjes entre ellos, y porque no son arrogantes. (Capítulo 5, 82)

La ausencia de arrogancia, bien sea derivada de o directamente causada por el deseo de entregarse a Dios, que se encuentra entre los cristianos y la cual es una parte de su religión tal como la entendemos, además de ser algo que puede apuntalar un diálogo entre nosotros, a menudo ha sido atenuada y ocultada hasta tiempos bastante recientes por la lucha política y militar entre las dos comunidades, basada en la geopolítica y la ambición humana de naturaleza expansionista durante un período que duró casi mil años.

El elefante en la oscuridad

Lo puedes leer gratis aquí en Español, Portugués, English.

 


¿Qué piensan los musulmanes de Jesús y por qué piensan de cierta manera acerca de su misión, su entrega y su gente? Un distinguido clérigo y trabajador cristiano en el campo de la religión comparada ha recordado recientemente a sus lectores ingleses que Jesús es conocido como al-Sayyed, el Príncipe o “el Señor”, lo cual es una señal de honor. “El título al-Sayyid”, continúa, “se usa particularmente para Muhammad y sus descendientes, pero también para otras grandes personas. En City of Wrong, un estudio de Jerusalén durante un Viernes Santo desde el punto de vista de la ortodoxia musulmana, el título ‘el Señor Cristo’ se usa asiduamente.”

El importante lugar que ocupó Jesús entre los seiscientos millones de musulmanes del mundo , diseminados desde las costas atlánticas de Marruecos en el oeste hasta la China, Filipinas e Indonesia en Oriente, y el consenso de ambas religiones sobre la necesidad de entregarse a Dios como medio de salvación, hacen que sea relativamente fácil para un musulmán dirigirse a los cristianos: la simpatía y la historia ya están allí.

 

El Elefante en la Oscuridad (da click para leer el libro en Español, English y Portugués)

 


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‘Take up this sack and carry it to my house,’ said Nasrudin to a porter in the market. ‘May I be your sacrifice, Effendi. Where is your house?’ The Mulla looked at him aghast. ‘You are a disreputable ruffian, and probably a burglar. Do you think that I could ever tell you where my house is?’

The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin:
New editions in Paperback, eBook, Audiobook, and free online version: https://idriesshahfoundation.org/books/the-exploits-of-the-incomparable-mulla-nasrudin/

 

 







Mood neurons mature during adolescence

Researchers have discovered a mysterious group of neurons in the amygdala — a key center for emotional processing in the brain — that stay in an immature, prenatal developmental state throughout childhood. Most of these cells mature rapidly during adolescence, suggesting a key role in the brain’s emotional development, but some stay immature throughout life, suggesting new ideas about how the brain keeps its emotional responses flexible throughout life.

“Most brain cells have matured far beyond this stage by the time you are born,” said study lead author Shawn Sorrells, PhD, a former UCSF researcher who is now assistant professor of neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh. “It’s fascinating that these are some of the very last cells to mature in the human brain, and most do so during puberty, precisely when huge developments in emotional intelligence are going on.”

The amygdala is an almond-shaped brain structure located deep in the brain’s temporal lobes (you actually have two, one on each side of the brain) that plays a key role in learning appropriate emotional responses to our environment. During childhood and adolescence — long after most of the rest of the human brain is finished growing — the amygdala continues to expand by as many as two million neurons, a late growth spurt that researchers believe is likely to play a key role in human emotional development, and which may go awry in neurodevelopmental disorders. For example, this expansion is absent in children with autism, and mood disorders that frequently emerge in adolescence, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have also been linked to problems with amygdala development.

Recent studies had detected a unique group of immature neurons in a region of the amygdala called the paralaminar nuclei (PL), which could help explain the amygdala’s rapid growth, but researchers had little idea where these cells came from or what role they play in mature brain circuits — even whether they are excitatory or inhibitory, the two main functional classes of neurons.

In the new study, published June 21, 2019, in Nature Communications, researchers from the lab of Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, PhD, the Heather and Melanie Muss Endowed Chair and Professor of Neurological Surgery and a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF, set out to understand the identity of these cells and their role in the amygdala’s rapid growth during childhood.

The researchers examined postmortem human amygdala tissue from 49 human brains — ranging in age from 20 gestational weeks to 78 years of age. Using both anatomical and molecular techniques to classify individual neurons’ maturity and function within neural circults, they found that the percentage of immature cells in the PL region of the amygdala remains high throughout childhood, but declines rapidly during adolescence: from birth to age 13, the number of immature cells declines from approximately 90 percent to just under 70 percent, but by the end of adolescence, only about 20 percent of PL cells remain immature.

Based on quantification of neurons in different stages of development coupled with analysis of gene expression patterns in individual neurons extracted from PL, the researchers showed that as the immature cells disappear, they are replaced by mature excitatory neurons — suggesting that the cells have taken their place in the amygdala’s maturing emotion processing circuitry. Since this is the first time these neurons have been clearly studied, scientists don’t know exactly what function the neurons serve, but the timing of their maturation suggests they may play a role in the rapid emotional development that occurs during human adolescence.

“Anyone who’s met a teenager knows that they are going through a rapid and sometimes tumultuous process of emotional learning about how to respond to stress, how to form positive social bonds, and so on,” Sorrells said. “At the same time, adolescence is when many psychiatric disorders known to involve the amygdala first manifest, suggesting that perhaps something has gone wrong with the normal process of emotional and cognitive development — though whether these cells are involved is a matter for future study.”

Notably, the researchers also found that some immature neurons appear to remain in the amygdala throughout life, and were even found in one 77-year-old brain. These results were in stark contrast to the hippocampus — a nearby structure in which the authors recently found that newborn and immature neurons completely decline to undetectable levels by adolescence.

“This is consistent with what we have seen before: that immature neurons are vanishingly rare in the adult hippocampus, but they do appear to persist in the amygdala,” Alvarez-Buylla said. “As far as we can tell, these cells aren’t being born throughout life, but seem to be maintained in an immature state from birth, though we can’t say this for sure given the techniques we’ve used here.”

In other animals, such as mice, new neurons continue to be born throughout life in the memory-forming hippocampus — and possibly at low rates in the amygdala — which researchers believe allows the brain to continuously rewire neural circuits to adapt to new experiences and environments. Following on the authors’ 2018 study showing that the birth of new neurons declines in the human brain during childhood and is very rare or absent in adults, the new study suggests that the human brain may maintain reserves of immature neurons throughout life, using these “Peter Pan” cells in a similar manner to the neurogenesis seen in other species — as new cells to be called on as needed to keep the brain’s emotional responses flexible and adaptable into old age.

“You could imagine these immature cells let the brain continue to sculpt the structure of neural circuits and their growth once you are out in the world experiencing what it’s like,” Sorrells said. “Of course, that’s just speculation at this point — one of the fascinating questions these findings open up for future study.”

Neurogenesis

Whether new neurons are born in the adult primate or human brain remains controversial. In 2018, Alvarez-Buylla, Sorrells and colleagues published results of the most rigorous search yet for new neurons in the human hippocampus, and they found that the birth of new neurons declined rapidly in childhood and was undetectable in adults.

Subsequently, other groups published data that appears to show newborn neurons in the adult human hippocampus, but Alvarez-Buylla and colleagues believe these studies rely too strongly on a small number of molecular markers for newborn neurons. They have shown that these markers can also be found in fully mature neurons and in non-neuronal cells called glia — which are known to continue dividing throughout life.

“Identifying new neurons is technically very challenging,” Alvarez-Buylla said. “It’s easy to forget that the molecular markers we use to identify particular molecules are not produced for our benefit — cells are using these molecules for their own biological needs, which are always going to be messy from the perspective of someone looking for simple classification. This is why we have endeavored to examine as many lines of evidence as possible — not just molecular markers but also cells’ shape and appearance — to make sure we are confident in what types of cells we are actually looking at in these analyses.”

The new study in the amygdala uses comprehensive single-cell gene expression techniques to sensitively detect immature neurons based on multiple lines of molecular evidence, and reinforces the group’s earlier findings in the hippocampus — showing that the precursors that divide to give birth to new neurons disappear within the first two years of life in the human amygdala, and that most immature neurons disappear during adolescence.

“Single-cell sequencing not only clearly identifies these long-lived immature neurons, but also shows that they express many developmental genes involved in axon development, synaptogenesis, dendrite morphogenesis, and even neuronal migration,” Sorrells said. “These cells could be erroneously assumed to be newborn neurons, but based on our developmental perspective, and the fact that we see few dividing cells present nearby, it looks as though they are already present at birth and decline throughout life.”

Link Original: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190624111530.htm?fbclid=IwAR2jYCOMWio-4CILDE2my2ppYPBSe2aK23eyeI2bt5S2ViqyVOhX-8VA4LE